Introduction to Mechatronics B.Tech 1st Year Unit-5 AKTU (Session 2023-2024)

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Introduction to Mechatronics Btech

What is Mechatronics?

The Mechatronics is composed of two words that is Mecha and Tronics in which Mecha refer to the Mechanical and Tronics refer to the Electronics.

Introduction to Mechatronics

Mechatronics is the combination of Mechanical, Electronics and Control Engineering along with Computer Science.

Mechatronics engineering is refer to the computer control structural electromechanical system. It is also called computer controlled mechanical system. Mechatronics are used in different fields of engineering and their concepts.

Components of a Mechatronic System

  • Mechanical: All static or dynamic physical parts
  • Electronics: ADC and DAC convertors, chipsets, etc
  • Sensors: As input source or for feedback
  • Actuators: To provide mechanical movements
  • Control: for feedback of output and necessary correction
  • Computing: for deciding required input for desired output

Evolution of Mechatronics

As evolution of automated systems takes place after introduction of Automatic device with electronic component such as relay, Transistor etc. This led to computer controlled automatic system take place.

Mechatronics

Mechatronic system consists of their core mechanical system along with the automated system. The controller should have proper information regarding systems, takes decision of required input on the basis of information received. Their are many cases, in which signal produced are not readable by the controller so the signal needs conditioning operation. In this signals are converted in to Analog to Digital Convertor and then send to controller for their understanding. Some examples of Mechatronic Systems are Scanner, Automatic Camera, Mobile Robot, Electronic Fuel Injection etc.

Advantages of Mechatronic Systems

Their are several advantages of Mechatronic Systems some of them are reduce the cost of labour and increase their productivity, Reduce the time consumption, Increase the standard of living, Improve quality product, Improve the safety and work environment of workers etc.

Disadvantages of Mechatronic Systems

Certain disadvantages of Mechatronic systems are High level of initial investment, Reducing the skills of worker, Increase of unemployment, Not economically suitable for small scale producers.

Industrial Applications/examples of mechatronics systems

Now a days Mechatronics systems are used in several industries such as Automobiles, Household Appliances, Robotics, Telecom industries, Manufacturing line etc.

Autotronics

Autotronics consists of two words that is Automobile and Electronics. Their is development of vehicles in last few years mainly based on electrical components. Their are now more than 80% of automobile are innovated. The various electronic systems used in automobiles are given below Autotronic braking system/Electronic braking system/ ABS, Control of steering system, Transmission control, Electronic control of fuel intake in engine (EFI), Adaptive cruise control, Regenerative braking system, Traction control system etc.

Bionics

Introduction to Bionics

Bionics refer to the engineering inspired with nature and other biological methods. With the help of Bionics we can use ideas in latest technology and in medicines. For example in medical field we can use bionic to make mechanical part of body organs so that if improper functioning takes place we can replace it easily. The work function in medical field is that scientist studies about the functioning of various organs in animals and human being and then use these ideas in the machine and form similar devices related to particular functioning of organs. So with the help of bionic implant we can place that particular mechanical device to recover the disability.

Types of Bionics

Bionic are of different types that are Vison Bionics (for eyes), Auditory Bionics (for ears), Orthopedic Bionics (for movement).

Vision Bionics

Vision Bionics helps blind people to see properly. The functioning of the devices are in form of implanted of little camera that send picture to special device in eyes which talk to your brain and helping people see better.

Auditory Bionics

Auditory bionic helps dead people to hear properly. The functioning of the devices are in form of implanted of Cochlear a special device which help poor people to hear better. This device remove the bridge gap between sound and the brain of human body.

Orthopedic Bionics

Orthopedic helps people to improve their mobility. Those people suffering from improper movements then these orthopedic bionic helps in restore their motor functionality and help their arms and legs in proper bending and grabbing of thing with the involvement of brain.

Avionics

Introduction to Avionics

Avionics refers to the involvement of electronic or special system in satellite, aircraft etc. It helps in functioning of proper communication, navigations, radar signals and other things that help in making proper working of aircraft.

Mechanical Actuation System

These are the system helps in controlling various function in machine or devices. This is like the bones and muscles of the all the machine. The system includes belt drive, gears, ball bearing that helps in functioning and controlling actions of machine.

Some mechanical components used for actuation purpose are

Kinematic chain

Kinematic chain is a mechanical system consist of group of rigid body linked to each other. The specialty of this mechanical tool is that motion of one body or toy started moving other body or toy because of linked connectivity. It work in the form that when we move one chain then their other chain moves automatically.

Cam

Cam is refer to the cylindrical structure which helps in transform the rotatory or circular motion into the linear motion. When we apply pushes on the lever the wheel turns and make the motion back and forth.

Train Ratchet Mechanism

Ratchet is a special type of mechanical tool which consist of special gears helps thing to move in one direction. It consist of gear with the small lever which help to click into place. As if you try to move the ratchet in one direction, it can move freely if you move this mechanical tool in opposite direction then its become stop. It is useful tool in freely work for bicycles or other instrument which you want to apply the force in one direction. It make the work easily and maximize the force than applied.

Gears and its uses

Gears is a mechanical tool having wheel with teeth around it. It is the set of two or more which work in the pair and provide rotatory motion or spinning. In this system working takes place when one gear move it automatically starts moving another gear. This system are very helpful because of it’s application and uses such as it helps in slow down of speed and increasing of power (torque), it gives us more controls in compare to other mechanical systems, it helps in transmission of rotation from one place to another.

Types of Gears

Gears are of mainly 4 types that is Spur Gears, Bevel Gears, Worm Gears and Helical Gears.

  • Spur Gear: In spur gear are the simplest and common form of gear. The structural designed of spur gear is straight up and down teeth seems like a comb.
  • Bevel Gear: In this type of gear power are transferred between one axis to another which are not parallel to each other. The structural design of bevel gear are like slanted teeth, seems like a cone.
  • Worm Gear: The structural design of worm gear is like small screw like piece seems like a worm. The functioning of worm gear is to slow down and increase the power of the object in small available space.
  • Helical Gear: This is the most efficient version of spur gear. The structural design of Helical Gear are like teeth are set in an angle, so they can easily curve around the gear.

Belt Drive

Belt is refer to that flexible material used in linkage of rotating two or more rotatory shafts which are mainly present in parallel. Belt helps in effective relative motion and transmits power effectively. Belt are further classified in to two type open belt drive and crossed belt drive. The another types of classification are flat belts.

Bearing and it’s functions

Bearing is the special type of mechanical tool help in reducing the friction between the moving part and provide desired motion to the body. Bearing helps in smooth rotation of the body. These are mainly of 4 types ball bearing, roller bearing, tapered roller bearing and needle bearing. The major function of bearing are provide smooth rotation by reducing the friction between parts, keep the rotation in right position, it supports the rotatory parts like wheels and gears.

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